SQL Statements

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SQL use the term query as the name for its commands. Basically, all SQL code is written in the form of a query statement and then executed against a database.

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All SQL queries perform some type of data operation such as selecting data, inserting/updating data, or creating data objects such as SQL databases and SQL tables.
Each query statement begins with a clause such as SELECT,UPDATE, CREATE or DELETE and ends with semicolon(;)

Important point to be noted is that SQL is not case sensitive language which means SELECT and select have same meaning in SQL statements but MySQL make difference in table names. So if you are working with MySQL then you need to give table names as they exist in the database.

SQL Statements

We can classify the SQL statements as follows:

Data retrieval SELECT
Data manipulation language (DML) INSERT
UPDATE
DELETE
Data definition language (DDL) CREATE
ALTER
DROP
RENAME
TRUNCATE
Transaction control COMMIT
ROLLBACK
SAVEPOINT
Data control language (DCL) GRANT
REVOKE

Example table to explain these commands:

We will use the following table to explain the next few chapters, assume this table name as ‘Employee‘.

EID Department Name Salary

1

Research Ravi

22000

2

HR Mike

33000

3

Admin Neel

25000

4

Sales Anna

30000

5

HR Jo

20000

6

Admin Sunil

25000

7

Sales Mark

28000

8

Research Bill

35000

9

HR Tim

40000

10

Research Sharan

32000

Select Statement:

SELECT QUERY allows you to retrieve records from one or more tables from database.

Syntax:

[code language=”sql”] SELECT columns FROM tables WHERE <condition>

We often us WHERE Clause with SELECT Statement:

[code language=”sql”] Where {expression | column} “operator” {expression | column}[and|or] {expression | column} “operator” {expression | column}

Examples on SELECT:


Example 1: Retrieving entire data from Employee table:

[code language=”sql”] SELECT * FROM Employee

Here * indicates all the columns of the table.

Output:

EID Department Name Salary

1

Research Ravi

22000

2

HR Mike

33000

3

Admin Neel

25000

4

Sales Anna

30000

5

HR Jo

20000

6

Admin Sunil

25000

7

Sales Mark

28000

8

Research Bill

35000

9

HR Tim

40000

10

Research Sharan

32000


Example 2: Retrieving the data from Employee table where the department is Research:

[code language=”sql”] SELECT * FROM Employee WHERE Department="Research"

Here * indicates all the columns of the table.

Output:

EID Department Name Salary

1

Research Ravi

22000

8

Research Bill

35000

10

Research Sharan

32000


Example 1: Retrieving EID and Name from Employee table where salary is grater than 22000:

[code language=”sql”] SELECT EID, Name FROM Employee WHERE Salary>22000

Here * indicates all the columns of the table.

Output:

EID Name

2

Mike

3

Neel

4

Anna

6

Sunil

7

Mark

8

Bill

9

Tim

10

Sharan


We will see more examples on SELECT statement later with more examples.

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Related Resource External VBA Reference
By |December 25th, 2012|SQL|1 Comment

About the Author:

PNRao is a passionate business analyst and having close to 10 years of experience in Data Mining, Data Analysis and Application Development. This blog is his passion to learn new skills and share his knowledge to make you expertise in Data Analysis (Excel, VBA, SQL, SAS, Statistical Methods, Market Research Methodologies and Data Analysis Techniques).

One Comment

  1. mano January 8, 2016 at 3:24 PM - Reply

    how to make not equal to statement in EXCEL ADO , give example

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